A to Z commonly used food's glossary and cooking terms.
Kare-kare is a Philippine stew or curry. Any Filipino fiesta, particularly
in the Tagalog region, is not complete without kare-kare, which is made
with a variety of vegetables. It is made from a peanut sauce (sometimes
spiced with chili), stewed ox tail, goat, chicken or beef, bagoong and
occasionally offal or tripe.
A kebab is essentially small chunks of meat threaded onto a skewer and
grilled or cooked over coals. Kebabs can be served on their own with
dips or sauces, with rice, or removed from the skewer and used to stuff
an open pitta bread.
Kebabs are part of the culinary tradition of the Caucasus, the Middle
East, the Indian subcontinent and other parts of Asia, as well as numerous
other cuisines. Vegetables can be used instead of or as well as meat.
Kebabs are particularly good for barbecuing because you can satisfy
all kinds of tastes on a single skewer - from veggie kebabs to chicken,
lamb, beef or fruit.
Often called catsup in the US, this thick, slightly sweet and spicy
sauce is a traditional American accompaniment for French fries, hamburgers
and many other foods. It's usually made from tomatoes, vinegar, sugar
and spices, but other flavours such as mushroom ketchup or various fruit
ketchups are available.
Also spelled kecap manis. Similar to dark soy sauce but sweeter, this
extremely rich, dark, syrupy sauce is used in marinades, as a condiment
or as an ingredient in Indonesian cooking. The sweetness comes from
palm sugar; other flavourings include garlic and star anise. It's available
from Asian supermarkets.
Kimchi, also known as gimchi or kimchee is a traditional Korean dish
of fermented chile peppers and vegetables, usually based on cabbage.
The Korean word seems to originally have meant "steeped (or submerged)
King crabs, also called stone crabs are a family of crab-like decapod
crustaceans chiefly found in cold seas. Their large size means that
many species are widely caught and sold as food.
The King Mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) is a migratory species of
mackerel that lives its entire life in the open waters of the western
Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. At present, king mackerel are primarily
marketed fresh. They may be sold as fillets, steaks, or in the round
(whole). Their raw flesh is grayish, due to its high fat content, They
are best prepared by broiling, frying, baking or, especially for large
?Smoker? King, by smoking.
From the German 'kirsch' meaning cherry, this is a clear liqueur distilled
from cherries and their almond-flavoured stones, often used in sponge
cakes, for macerating and to flavour dishes containing fruit. It's often
added to fondue and is used in the dish cherries Jubilee - poached cherries
flambéed with kirsch.
An exotic fruit from New Zealand, also known as horned melon or jelly
melon. It has a bright yellow-orange skin covered in stubby spikes and
a pale yellow-green pulp with a jelly-like texture and tangy flavour.
It's a refreshing fruit to eat as it is from the shell, or you can spoon
the flesh into fruit salads, over ice cream or use it in puddings.
The kiwifruit is the edible fruit of a Cultivar Group of the woody vine
Actinidia deliciosa and hybrids between this and other species in the
genus Actinidia. It is marketed worldwide as kiwifruit but is more commonly
called kiwi in North and South America and in Europe. The most common
cultivars of kiwifruit are oval, and about the size of a large hen's
egg (5-8 cm long and 4.5-5.5 cm diameter). It has a hairy, dull green-brown
skin that most people peel off before consumption. The flesh is bright
green or golden with rows of small, black, edible seeds. The texture
of the fruit is soft and the flavour is sometimes described as a mix
of strawberry, banana, and pineapple.
To work and stretch dough either by hand or using an electric dough
hook. The process makes the mixture smoother and softer and develops
the elasticity of the gluten. It also evenly incorporates air and any
additional ingredients at the same time. Depending on the recipe (and
your energy levels!) kneading usually takes about seven to ten minutes.
A knish is an eastern-European snack food popular in Jewish communities.
A knish consists of a filling covered with dough that is either baked
One of numerous members of the brassica family, a pale green or purple,
bulb-shaped vegetable that tastes a bit like a mild turnip. It's grown
more for its bulb-like stem than for its greens leaves, although these
can be eaten too if they're attached when you buy it. Kohlrabi can be
substituted for turnip in any recipe, and is good steamed or boiled,
sliced and stir-fried and added to stews or soups.
Korma, also spelt qorma, is a mild curry, often made with yogurt sauce,
cream, or nuts. In some cases it is made with coconut cream. Especially
Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. Invalidating
characteristics may range from the presence of a mixture of meat and
milk, to the use of produce from Israel that has not been tithed properly,
or even the use of cooking utensils which had previously been used for
This is a ceremonial bread served for Easter in Russia. Kulichi are
baked inside large cans, its'' not a bread, and thus has to be a unique
form, usually tall & rounded. The topping of the Kulich, by mixing
confect. sugar with water and a squeeze of lemon. This glaze is placed
on the Kulich once it cools down. Also, instead of using flour after
buttering the inside form, you should use bread crumbs. Once you serve
the Kulich, you should serve it with Paskha and painted eggs for Easter
A small citrus fruit originating in central China but now cultivated
in the Far East, Australia and America. Kumquats - sometimes called
Chinese oranges - can be eaten whole, including the skin, or used for
pickling and preserves. They're as sharp in taste as lemons. Choose
small, shiny fruits. Wash and eat them whole, poach them in sugar syrup
and serve with ice cream, or use in a fruit salad. They're particularly
good in stuffings for poultry.
Ladies' Fingers (Okra)
An alternative name (because of its appearance) for okra, an ingredient
that's widely used in Indian, Middle Eastern, Caribbean and southern
US cookery where it's an essential ingredient in gumbo.
A long green pod with a slightly fuzzy skin, it's full of edible creamy
seeds. Okra exudes a glutinous juice in cooking which thickens stews
and braised dishes.
Rendered and clarified pork fat, lard is a fine white fat that's less
used these days because of its high animal-fat content. It's used particularly
for slow cooking, but also for deep-frying, and it's said to make the
best crisp, flaky pastry.
Lardons are small, chunky cubes of bacon (smoked or unsmoked) used to
flavour dishes such as quiches. They can also be fried and scattered
in salads. They're often sweated with onions as a base for soups or
stews. They give a good salty depth of flavour to robust dishes such
as coq au vin.
Rectangular sheets of Italian pasta, about the size of a standard envelope.
The baked dish that incorporates them is also called lasagne and is
usually prepared with alternate layers of Bolognese sauce, lasagne sheets
and béchamel sauce, topped with grated Parmesan cheese and baked
in the oven until browned.
Lasagne can be made with many different fillings, such as roasted vegetables,
spinach, aubergine, fish or chicken. A simple tomato sauce could be
used in place of béchamel or different cheeses can be grated
A traditional Indian drink that used to be made from buttermilk poured
into earthenware crocks, with salt added to help combat dehydration
in the hot climate. It's now made from thin yoghurt, often sweetened
with sugar or rosewater or sometimes spiced with cumin. To make your
own, dilute plain yogurt, with water or milk, add salt or sugar to taste,
then blend vigorously with crushed ice.
The Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (L.) J. Gay) is a vegetable
belonging, with onion and garlic, to the Alliaceae, the onion family.
Leeks are generally considered to have a finer flavor than the common
onion. They can also be used raw in salads, doing especially well when
they are the prime ingredient.
Very sharp, acidic citrus fruit with a shiny yellow skin and sour but
zingy flavour. Lemons are rich in vitamin C but with a low sugar content.
They're available all year round and used in both sweet and savoury
In the U.S. and Canada it refers to an uncarbonated soft drink made
of a mixture of lemon juice, sugar, and water. An approximate recipe
for U.S. and Canadian lemonade is to mix equal volumes of lemon juice
and sugar and add water to taste, approximately four times as much water
as lemon juice. About three quarters the volume of sugar is likely to
be better to the taste of most people. It is traditionally served cold,
preferably with ice. In many upscale supermarkets, tall bottles of supposedly
European lemonade can be purchased. These are always carbonated or ?sparkling.?
Often, these are translucent yellow, more like North American lemonade,
though there are occasionally transparent and pink varieties as well.
A main ingredient in Thai and South-east Asian cuisines, lemongrass
is a pale green stalk that can be used fresh, dried or powdered to impart
its lemon flavour to sweet or savoury dishes. Fresh stalks are sold
in many supermarkets now.
The lentil (Lens culinaris) is a bushy annual plant of the legume family,
grown for its lens-shaped seeds. The plant originated in the Near East,
and has been part of the human diet since the aceramic Neolithic. With
25% protein it is the vegetable with the highest level of protein other
than soybeans, and because of this it is a very important part of the
diet in many countries, and especially India which has a large vegetarian
population. A variety of lentils exist with colors that range from yellow
to red-orange to green, brown and black. The colours of the seeds when
removed from the pods also vary, and there are large and small varieties.
They are sold in many forms, with or without the pods, whole or split.
Lettuce is a temperate annual or biennial plant most often grown as
a leaf vegetable. In Western countries, it is typically eaten cold and
raw, in salads, hamburgers, tacos, and several other dishes. In some
places, including China, lettuce is typically eaten cooked and use of
the stem is as important as use of the leaf. There are 4 main types
of lettuce whichh are Iceberg, Butterhead, Romaine, and Looseleaf.
The process of thickening a sauce, soup or stew. This includes all rouxs,
starch and water mixtures (slurries), beurre marni and egg yolks with
or without cream. Egg yolks must be tempered with hot liquid before
adding to the liquid in order to prevent curdling.
The lima bean is palatable and nutritious both immature as a fresh vegetable
and mature as a dry pulse. Immature lima beans are one of the principal
ingredients of succotash. Dry lima beans require lengthy soaking of
about twelve hours and thorough cooking.
Small, green citrus fruit is used mainly for its juice. It can be added
to savoury dishes, as in Asian cuisine, curries in particular. It has
a stronger, more sour taste than lemon. Lime juice and zest can be used
in marinades and salsas or just squeezed over finished dishes. It's
used in ceviche to effectively 'cook' the raw fish.
A limpet, (Opihi in Hawaiian) is a one of a group of marine Mollusks
within the class Gastropoda. There are several varieties of limpets
known as 'Opihi in Hawaii. The variety with a green border on the underside
is known as makaiauli. The variety with a yellow foot is known as alinalina,
and the gray-footed variety is ko'ele
Limu is also the Hawaiian word for algae. Limu played an important part
in the ancient Hawaiian diet. It was used to add flavor to an otherwise
particularly bland diet of kalo (taro), 'uala (sweet potato), and 'ulu
(breadfruit). Limu, together with sea salt and mashed kukui nuts were
the ingredients of 'inamona, a seasoning mixture much enjoyed by early
Lingonberries are a dark red soft fruit similar to a cranberry, traditionally
used in Scandanavian cooking. They can be used to make lingonberry juice
which can be served hot or cold, and lingonberry jam.
A flattened spaghetti-like pasta. It's best served with a medium-thick
sauce which will cling to the thin strands well. Cream-based sauces
go well with linguine and it's often served with seafood. Allow about
75g/21⁄2oz of pasta a person. Use spaghetti if you can't find
linguine, although it's available from most supermarkets either fresh
A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits,
herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream.
The word liqueur comes from the latin word liquifacere which means "to
dissolve." This refers to the dissolving of the flavorings used
to make the liqueur. Liqueurs are not usually aged for long periods
of time, but may have resting periods during their production to allow
the flavors to marry.
A distilled beverage is a liquid preparation meant for consumption containing
ethyl alcohol purified by distillation from a fermented substance such
as fruit, vegetables, or grain. The word spirits generally refers to
distilled beverages low in sugars and containing at least 35% alcohol
by volume. Gin, vodka, rum, whiskey, cognac, and tequila are types of
spirits. Beverages high in both alcohol and sugar content such as Grand
Marnier, Frangelico and schnapps are generally referred to as liqueurs.
The term liquor may mean spirits, spirits and liqueurs, or all alcoholic
beverages, including wine, sake, beer, and mead.
Although there many lobster varieties around the world, the two main
ones are the American (or Maine) lobster, which is considered the biggest
and best, and the European lobster, which tends to be smaller. They
can be used interchangeably in recipes.
A hybrid between a blackberry and raspberry, the loganberry is a large
soft dark-red berry, a little bigger than a raspberry. It has a less
subtle flavour than a raspberry and can be quite tart, so needs plenty
of sugar when used in desserts. Use it as you would other summer berries
- eaten fresh with sugar or cream, in desserts, jams and coulis. In
savoury cooking it goes particularly well with game dishes.
A loin is a cut of meat that comes from the back of the animal. It's
sold as a roasting joint, with or without bones, as well as chops and
steaks which are good for grilling and barbecues. You'll occasionally
find the word loin describing some fish, such as tuna loin or monkfish
Lo mein is a Chinese dish based on stir-fried wheat noodles. It often
contains vegetables and some type of meat or seafood, usually beef,
chicken, pork, or shrimp. The Chinese word "lo" means stir
or mix. It can either mean "stirred by the chef" or "stirred
by the eater". The name refers to totally different dishes in different
parts of Chin.
To massage, knead or rub; lomi salmon is a popular lu'au dish.
Also known as sea parsley, the leaves and stem of the lovage plant add
an intense celery-like flavour to soups, stews and stocks or pork and
poultry dishes. It can also be used to enhance potato dishes.
A luau (Hawaiian lu'au) is a traditional Hawaiian feast that normally
features foods such as poi, kalua pig (pork prepared in an imu, or earth
oven), poke, and lomi salmon. Hawaii residents often hold luaus to celebrate
special occasions such as a child's first birthday. Commercial operations
in Hawaii also specialize in luaus that cater to visitors to the Islands.
A fruit that originated in China and is now grown in the Far East and
the West Indies. It's about the size of a small plum and has a thin,
hard, rough shell that comes off easily. The white, juicy flesh has
a similar texture to grapes but is more chewy, with a delicate scent.
There is a large dark brown stone in the centre.